wp_mail( string|array $to, string $subject, string $message, string|array $headers = '', string|array $attachments = array() )

Send mail, similar to PHP’s mail


Description

A true return value does not automatically mean that the user received the email successfully. It just only means that the method used was able to process the request without any errors.

Using the two ‘wp_mail_from’ and ‘wp_mail_from_name’ hooks allow from creating a from address like ‘Name [email protected]‘ when both are set. If just ‘wp_mail_from’ is set, then just the email address will be used with no name.

The default content type is ‘text/plain’ which does not allow using HTML. However, you can set the content type of the email by using the ‘wp_mail_content_type’ filter.

The default charset is based on the charset used on the blog. The charset can be set using the ‘wp_mail_charset’ filter.


Parameters

$to

(string|array) (Required) Array or comma-separated list of email addresses to send message.

$subject

(string) (Required) Email subject

$message

(string) (Required) Message contents

$headers

(string|array) (Optional) Additional headers.

Default value: ''

$attachments

(string|array) (Optional) Files to attach.

Default value: array()


Return

(bool) Whether the email contents were sent successfully.


Source

File: wp-includes/pluggable.php

function wp_mail( $to, $subject, $message, $headers = '', $attachments = array() ) {
	// Compact the input, apply the filters, and extract them back out

	/**
	 * Filters the wp_mail() arguments.
	 *
	 * @since WP-2.2.0
	 *
	 * @param array $args {
	 *     Array of the `wp_mail()` arguments.
	 *
	 *     @type string|string[] $to          Array or comma-separated list of email addresses to send message.
	 *     @type string          $subject     Email subject.
	 *     @type string          $message     Message contents.
	 *     @type string|string[] $headers     Additional headers.
	 *     @type string|string[] $attachments Paths to files to attach.
	 * }
	 */
	$atts = apply_filters( 'wp_mail', compact( 'to', 'subject', 'message', 'headers', 'attachments' ) );

	/**
	 * Filters whether to preempt sending an email.
	 *
	 * Returning a non-null value will short-circuit {@see wp_mail()}, returning
	 * that value instead. A boolean return value should be used to indicate whether
	 * the email was successfully sent.
	 *
	 * @since WP-5.7.0
	 *
	 * @param null|bool $return Short-circuit return value.
	 * @param array     $atts {
	 *     Array of the `wp_mail()` arguments.
	 *
	 *     @type string|string[] $to          Array or comma-separated list of email addresses to send message.
	 *     @type string          $subject     Email subject.
	 *     @type string          $message     Message contents.
	 *     @type string|string[] $headers     Additional headers.
	 *     @type string|string[] $attachments Paths to files to attach.
	 * }
	 */
	$pre_wp_mail = apply_filters( 'pre_wp_mail', null, $atts );

	if ( null !== $pre_wp_mail ) {
		return $pre_wp_mail;
	}

	if ( isset( $atts['to'] ) ) {
		$to = $atts['to'];
	}

	if ( !is_array( $to ) ) {
		$to = explode( ',', $to );
	}

	if ( isset( $atts['subject'] ) ) {
		$subject = $atts['subject'];
	}

	if ( isset( $atts['message'] ) ) {
		$message = $atts['message'];
	}

	if ( isset( $atts['headers'] ) ) {
		$headers = $atts['headers'];
	}

	if ( isset( $atts['attachments'] ) ) {
		$attachments = $atts['attachments'];
	}

	if ( ! is_array( $attachments ) ) {
		$attachments = explode( "\n", str_replace( "\r\n", "\n", $attachments ) );
	}
	global $phpmailer;

	// (Re)create it, if it's gone missing
	if ( ! ( $phpmailer instanceof PHPMailer ) ) {
		require_once ABSPATH . WPINC . '/class-phpmailer.php';
		require_once ABSPATH . WPINC . '/class-smtp.php';
		$phpmailer = new PHPMailer( true );
	}

	// Headers
	$cc = $bcc = $reply_to = array();

	if ( empty( $headers ) ) {
		$headers = array();
	} else {
		if ( !is_array( $headers ) ) {
			// Explode the headers out, so this function can take both
			// string headers and an array of headers.
			$tempheaders = explode( "\n", str_replace( "\r\n", "\n", $headers ) );
		} else {
			$tempheaders = $headers;
		}
		$headers = array();

		// If it's actually got contents
		if ( !empty( $tempheaders ) ) {
			// Iterate through the raw headers
			foreach ( (array) $tempheaders as $header ) {
				if ( strpos($header, ':') === false ) {
					if ( false !== stripos( $header, 'boundary=' ) ) {
						$parts = preg_split('/boundary=/i', trim( $header ) );
						$boundary = trim( str_replace( array( "'", '"' ), '', $parts[1] ) );
					}
					continue;
				}
				// Explode them out
				list( $name, $content ) = explode( ':', trim( $header ), 2 );

				// Cleanup crew
				$name    = trim( $name    );
				$content = trim( $content );

				switch ( strtolower( $name ) ) {
					// Mainly for legacy -- process a From: header if it's there
					case 'from':
						$bracket_pos = strpos( $content, '<' );
						if ( $bracket_pos !== false ) {
							// Text before the bracketed email is the "From" name.
							if ( $bracket_pos > 0 ) {
								$from_name = substr( $content, 0, $bracket_pos - 1 );
								$from_name = str_replace( '"', '', $from_name );
								$from_name = trim( $from_name );
							}

							$from_email = substr( $content, $bracket_pos + 1 );
							$from_email = str_replace( '>', '', $from_email );
							$from_email = trim( $from_email );

						// Avoid setting an empty $from_email.
						} elseif ( '' !== trim( $content ) ) {
							$from_email = trim( $content );
						}
						break;
					case 'content-type':
						if ( strpos( $content, ';' ) !== false ) {
							list( $type, $charset_content ) = explode( ';', $content );
							$content_type = trim( $type );
							if ( false !== stripos( $charset_content, 'charset=' ) ) {
								$charset = trim( str_replace( array( 'charset=', '"' ), '', $charset_content ) );
							} elseif ( false !== stripos( $charset_content, 'boundary=' ) ) {
								$boundary = trim( str_replace( array( 'BOUNDARY=', 'boundary=', '"' ), '', $charset_content ) );
								$charset = '';
							}

						// Avoid setting an empty $content_type.
						} elseif ( '' !== trim( $content ) ) {
							$content_type = trim( $content );
						}
						break;
					case 'cc':
						$cc = array_merge( (array) $cc, explode( ',', $content ) );
						break;
					case 'bcc':
						$bcc = array_merge( (array) $bcc, explode( ',', $content ) );
						break;
					case 'reply-to':
						$reply_to = array_merge( (array) $reply_to, explode( ',', $content ) );
						break;
					default:
						// Add it to our grand headers array
						$headers[trim( $name )] = trim( $content );
						break;
				}
			}
		}
	}

	// Empty out the values that may be set
	$phpmailer->clearAllRecipients();
	$phpmailer->clearAttachments();
	$phpmailer->clearCustomHeaders();
	$phpmailer->clearReplyTos();

	// From email and name
	// If we don't have a name from the input headers
	if ( !isset( $from_name ) )
		$from_name = 'ClassicPress';

	/* If we don't have an email from the input headers default to [email protected]$sitename
	 * Some hosts will block outgoing mail from this address if it doesn't exist but
	 * there's no easy alternative. Defaulting to admin_email might appear to be another
	 * option but some hosts may refuse to relay mail from an unknown domain. See
	 * https://core.trac.wordpress.org/ticket/5007.
	 */

	if ( !isset( $from_email ) ) {
		// Get the site domain and get rid of www.
		$sitename = strtolower( $_SERVER['SERVER_NAME'] );
		if ( substr( $sitename, 0, 4 ) == 'www.' ) {
			$sitename = substr( $sitename, 4 );
		}

		$from_email = '[email protected]' . $sitename;
	}

	/**
	 * Filters the email address to send from.
	 *
	 * @since WP-2.2.0
	 *
	 * @param string $from_email Email address to send from.
	 */
	$from_email = apply_filters( 'wp_mail_from', $from_email );

	/**
	 * Filters the name to associate with the "from" email address.
	 *
	 * @since WP-2.3.0
	 *
	 * @param string $from_name Name associated with the "from" email address.
	 */
	$from_name = apply_filters( 'wp_mail_from_name', $from_name );

	try {
		$phpmailer->setFrom( $from_email, $from_name, false );
	} catch ( phpmailerException $e ) {
		$mail_error_data = compact( 'to', 'subject', 'message', 'headers', 'attachments' );
		$mail_error_data['phpmailer_exception_code'] = $e->getCode();

		/** This filter is documented in wp-includes/pluggable.php */
		do_action( 'wp_mail_failed', new WP_Error( 'wp_mail_failed', $e->getMessage(), $mail_error_data ) );

		return false;
	}

	// Set mail's subject and body
	$phpmailer->Subject = $subject;
	$phpmailer->Body    = $message;

	// Set destination addresses, using appropriate methods for handling addresses
	$address_headers = compact( 'to', 'cc', 'bcc', 'reply_to' );

	foreach ( $address_headers as $address_header => $addresses ) {
		if ( empty( $addresses ) ) {
			continue;
		}

		foreach ( (array) $addresses as $address ) {
			try {
				// Break $recipient into name and address parts if in the format "Foo <[email protected]>"
				$recipient_name = '';

				if ( preg_match( '/(.*)<(.+)>/', $address, $matches ) ) {
					if ( count( $matches ) == 3 ) {
						$recipient_name = $matches[1];
						$address        = $matches[2];
					}
				}

				switch ( $address_header ) {
					case 'to':
						$phpmailer->addAddress( $address, $recipient_name );
						break;
					case 'cc':
						$phpmailer->addCc( $address, $recipient_name );
						break;
					case 'bcc':
						$phpmailer->addBcc( $address, $recipient_name );
						break;
					case 'reply_to':
						$phpmailer->addReplyTo( $address, $recipient_name );
						break;
				}
			} catch ( phpmailerException $e ) {
				continue;
			}
		}
	}

	// Set to use PHP's mail()
	$phpmailer->isMail();

	// Set Content-Type and charset
	// If we don't have a content-type from the input headers
	if ( !isset( $content_type ) )
		$content_type = 'text/plain';

	/**
	 * Filters the wp_mail() content type.
	 *
	 * @since WP-2.3.0
	 *
	 * @param string $content_type Default wp_mail() content type.
	 */
	$content_type = apply_filters( 'wp_mail_content_type', $content_type );

	$phpmailer->ContentType = $content_type;

	// Set whether it's plaintext, depending on $content_type
	if ( 'text/html' == $content_type )
		$phpmailer->isHTML( true );

	// If we don't have a charset from the input headers
	if ( !isset( $charset ) )
		$charset = get_bloginfo( 'charset' );

	// Set the content-type and charset

	/**
	 * Filters the default wp_mail() charset.
	 *
	 * @since WP-2.3.0
	 *
	 * @param string $charset Default email charset.
	 */
	$phpmailer->CharSet = apply_filters( 'wp_mail_charset', $charset );

	// Set custom headers.
	if ( ! empty( $headers ) ) {
		foreach ( (array) $headers as $name => $content ) {
			// Only add custom headers not added automatically by PHPMailer.
			if ( ! in_array( $name, array( 'MIME-Version', 'X-Mailer' ) ) ) {
				$phpmailer->addCustomHeader( sprintf( '%1$s: %2$s', $name, $content ) );
			}
		}

		if ( false !== stripos( $content_type, 'multipart' ) && ! empty($boundary) )
			$phpmailer->addCustomHeader( sprintf( "Content-Type: %s;\n\t boundary=\"%s\"", $content_type, $boundary ) );
	}

	if ( !empty( $attachments ) ) {
		foreach ( $attachments as $attachment ) {
			try {
				$phpmailer->addAttachment($attachment);
			} catch ( phpmailerException $e ) {
				continue;
			}
		}
	}

	/**
	 * Fires after PHPMailer is initialized.
	 *
	 * @since WP-2.2.0
	 *
	 * @param PHPMailer $phpmailer The PHPMailer instance (passed by reference).
	 */
	do_action_ref_array( 'phpmailer_init', array( &$phpmailer ) );

	// Send!
	try {
		return $phpmailer->send();
	} catch ( phpmailerException $e ) {

		$mail_error_data = compact( 'to', 'subject', 'message', 'headers', 'attachments' );
		$mail_error_data['phpmailer_exception_code'] = $e->getCode();

		/**
		 * Fires after a phpmailerException is caught.
		 *
		 * @since WP-4.4.0
		 *
		 * @param WP_Error $error A WP_Error object with the phpmailerException message, and an array
		 *                        containing the mail recipient, subject, message, headers, and attachments.
		 */
		do_action( 'wp_mail_failed', new WP_Error( 'wp_mail_failed', $e->getMessage(), $mail_error_data ) );

		return false;
	}
}


Changelog

Changelog
Version Description
WP-1.2.1 Introduced.